Breast augmentation, or breast augmentation or mammoplasty, is a surgical procedure to increase the size, shape, or fullness of the breast.
For breast enlargement, a plastic surgeon places implants filled with special silicone, saline solution or biocomposite material, breast implants under the pectoralis major muscle or under the breast tissue. Modern implants can serve a patient's entire life, and most manufacturers give their implants a lifetime guarantee.
Why should a woman need to enlarge her breasts?
The breast augmentation is done for:
- Enlarge small breasts naturally
- Restore the size and shape of the breast after pregnancy, weight loss or breastfeeding.
- Restore the symmetry when the breasts are asymmetrical
- Breast reconstruction after breast removal surgery
Plastic surgery includes reconstructive and aesthetic surgery.
Reconstructive breast surgery is performed as part of breast cancer treatment. Aesthetic breast surgery is done to improve the appearance. Breast augmentation is usually an aesthetic surgery.
In 2007, a study by researchers from the University of Florida showed that breast augmentation through aesthetic surgery increased women's self-esteem, feelings and sexuality. Allows you to get a higher paying job and gain more recognition.
What are breast implants?
A breast implant is a medical device that is placed under the breast or under the pectoralis major muscle to enlarge, reconstruct or create an aesthetic breast shape.
Breast implants can contain silicone, saline, or some other compound.
There are three main types of breast implants:
- Saline implantsare filled with sterile saline solution, which is only sterile salt water. The solution is in a silicone sleeve. These implants can be filled with different amounts of saline solution. This affects the feeling that occurs when you press on the mammary gland. It can be either softer or harder at the patient's request. In addition, a different density determines the different shape of the breast. If the saline implant is damaged and leaking, the solution will not harm the patient because the saline solution is natural to the body and is simply absorbed by the body without a trace. The only disadvantage is that if the volume of the mammary gland decreases, the implant will have to be changed.
- Silicone gel implantsconsist of a silicone outer shell filled with silicone gel. If the silicone implant leaks, the gel will either remain in the sleeve or fall into the breast implant pocket. And it won't spread all over the body. Modern implants do not spread even if the shell is damaged. These implants are the most widely used today.
- Alternative composite implantsare rarely used and can be filled with either biodegradable material or soybean oil or some other material.
What must be decided before the operation?
Breast augmentation is a surgical procedure, so patients need to carefully consider whether they really need this procedure.
- It is necessary to choose where the implant is to be placed - under the pectoralis major muscle or under the glandular tissue. Your surgical doctor will help you resolve this problem. The most common implants are placed under the muscle.
- Before the operation, the surgeon selects the required implant size together with the patient. This is done either with the help of special sizes that fit in the bra, and the patient can assess the size and comfort of wearing it. In addition, the patient, together with the doctor, selects the density of the implant, its shape (round or anatomical). Implant manufacturer.
- The surgeon and patient should discuss the incision options.
The following options are possible:
- Cut under the breast, made in the crease under the breast;
- Transaxillary incision in the armpit;
- Incision on the edge of the areola (periareolar) or through the areola (transareolar).
The choice of incision will depend on several factors, including the magnification, the patient's anatomy, the type of implant, and the surgeon's patient's preference.
In addition, the patient must choose the type of anesthesia. This surgery is often performed under general anesthesia. At the request of the patient, however, this is generally possible under local anesthesia.
How is the operation going?
After the patient is plunged into a medical sleep or after having performed local anesthesia, the surgeon makes an incision in the skin, depending on the type of access agreed with the patient, about 4. 5 centimeters long, and then forms with itWith the help of special tools, he creates a pocket in which he forms a pocket An endoprosthesis is placed.
The pocket can be formed either directly under the breast tissue or under the pectoralis major muscle (this will be discussed with the patient before the operation):
- It is placed under the pectoralis major muscle with an axillary pocket.
- The submammary or subglandular pocket is simpler because the pocket is formed in the space between the mammary gland and the pectoralis major muscle.
Suturing the wound
In their practice, plastic surgeons often use so-called cosmetic or more precisely intradermal sutures. As a rule, several rows of threads are laid, which usually do not have to be removed if they dissolve by themselves over time. In addition, a plastic surgeon can use a special surgical glue and special sterile strips to tighten the wound edges so that the scar is least noticeable in the postoperative period.
The cutting lines are initially visible, but almost completely disappear over time.
Evaluation of the results
Surgery can cause edema and bruises (bruises), but these should go away within two to four weeks. Usually the end result is formed no earlier than 3-6 months after the operation. Therefore, it takes some time for the patient to decide whether the procedure meets her expectations.
The recovery phase lasts 1 month. During this time there are certain restrictions that will be communicated to the patient by the doctor and a special memo will be issued for their precise implementation. Pain only worries the patient on the first day after the operation. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to relieve pain. In rare cases, narcotic analgesics. Then the pain practically disappears. A slight inconvenience remains. After surgery, you should not swim in open or closed water, take a bath, sleep on your back, raise your arms, exercise actively, and work hard. All of these restrictions are temporary for a month. Then the patient can live peacefully as she lived before the operation. You can fly on an airplane and dive with scuba diving. The most important thing in the postoperative phase is to wear special compression underwear. The underwear must be worn for 1 month after the operation and then for another 3 months for sports and vigorous physical activity.
The next day after the operation, the patient can leave the clinic if she wishes. The patient is monitored once a week for the first two weeks and then after a month. Then three months later. And then an annual review.
Absorbable (resorbable) threads usually dissolve within 6 weeks. The patient takes care of the seam independently at home. It's not difficult at all.
If the patient has non-absorbable sutures, an additional visit is required to remove them.
After the operation, the surgeon will not only tell you how to behave in the postoperative phase, but also give you an extract with recommendations in which the following is written:
- How to care for your breasts after the procedure;
- use of prescribed drugs;
- When is the next visit coming?
- When should you call your doctor?
You should see a doctor immediately if you experience:
- signs of infection such as fever over 38 degrees, fever or redness in the chest area;
- severe chest pain or a large increase in breast size /
What are the risks of this operation?
Every operation increases the risk of sudden death from myocardial infarction, stroke, thromboembolism during or immediately after the operation. Fortunately, such complications are extremely rare. And in modern clinics there are all resuscitation and anesthesia devices that minimize these risks to almost zero.
Some of the risks and complications associated with breast augmentation:
- Painful mammary glands;
- breast inflammation;
- If there is a feeling in the chest, the nipples may change temporarily or become more or less pronounced.
- implant breakage;
- Accumulation of fluid (seroma).
A special complication of this operation is the capsular contracture - a thick capsule forms around the implant. This can deform the mammary gland or make it extremely painful and tight. During the consultation, the surgeon will give you detailed information about this complication and how to avoid it.
Even cosmetic stitches can become red, thick and painful or flat and wide. This can lead to a second surgery to remove such scars.